Gabinetes ministeriales y reformas estructurales en América Latina, 1985-2000

  • David Altman Instituto de Ciencia Política, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
  • Rossana Castiglioni Universidad Diego Portales
Palabras clave: reforma estructural, América Latina, fragmentación del gabinete, Ejecutivo de coalición, posición ideológica del presidente

Resumen

Poca investigación ha sido dedicada al análisis de cómo diferentes características de los poderes ejecutivos afectan las reformas estructurales. Este artículo intenta llenar esta laguna analizando el impacto de la fragmentación partisana del gabinete y la posición ideológica del presidente en el alcance de las reformas estructurales en nueve democracias presidenciales de América Latina en el período post-autoritario. Para esto se consideran los gabinetes como un conjunto de actores que rinden cuentas tanto al presidente como a sus partidos, con ministros independientes que sólo son responsables ante el presidente. Esta investigación demuestra que cuanto mayor es el porcentaje de ministros independientes, menor es el costo asociado a la negociación de reformas al interior del ejecutivo. Cuando los presidentes arman gobiernos de coalición, limitan su capacidad de actuar unilateralmente. Sin embargo, están más capacitados para avanzar en sus propuestas de reforma estructural que en gobiernos de partido único. Los datos sobre la composición de los gabinetes fueron recolectados por los autores, mientras que los datos sobre la variable dependiente, reformas estructurales, provienen de Lora (2001).

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Citas

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Publicado
2018-10-25
Cómo citar
Altman, D., & Castiglioni, R. (2018). Gabinetes ministeriales y reformas estructurales en América Latina, 1985-2000. Revista Uruguaya De Ciencia Política, 18(1), 14-40. Recuperado a partir de http://rucp.cienciassociales.edu.uy/index.php/rucp/article/view/199